cfp logo text info   
text info
back to home
program committee
about Toronto

Speaker Bios

Jean-François Abramatic is Chairman of W3C, the World Wide Web Consortium. Formerly Associate Director of the MIT Laboratory for Computer Science (1997-1998) and Director of Development and Industrial Relations at INRIA (1992-1999), he was responsible for establishing the European branch of W3C in partnership with MIT LCS in 1995. He was the General Chairman of the Fifth International World Wide Web Conference which was held in Paris in May 1996. Jean-François was asked by the French government to prepare a report entitled "Développement Technique de l'Internet". The report was published in June 1999. His areas of expertise include networking, image processing and graphics. Jean-François received his Master's degree from Ecole des Mines in Nancy and his PhD from the University of Paris VI.

Larry Abramson is Telecommunications Correspondent for National Public Radio. His beat is wide-ranging, from FCC regulations to Internet taxation, but of late he has been focusing on the fate of privacy in a networked world. Larry also specializes in reporting on childrens issues, including threats to children on line and the politics of efforts to improve computer access in the schools. Larry has worked at NPR for 15 years. Previous to his journalistic incarnation he spent time in the Ivory Tower, and came dangerously close to getting a Ph.D in Comparative Literature.

Amadeu Abril i Abril is a member of the Board of Directors of ICANN. He teaches European Union Law, Competition Law, and IT Law at ESADE Law School, Ramon Llull University (a private University based in Barcelona). He also is an attorney-at-law specialising in distribution contracts, competition law and IT law. He was admitted to the Barcelona Bar in 1985, where he currently serves as Secretary to its Competition Law & Policy Section. Between 1986 and 1988 he worked at the European Commission's Directorate General for Competition Policy. His private practice has been significantly reduced since 1997, as he has been acting as a consultant on Internet and e-commerce affairs to a number of European companies, most notably as Legal & Policy Advisor to Nominalia Internet SL, a domain-name registrar. He has been specially involved in all the DNS reform process that eventually has brought ICANN into existence. He was elected to the gTLD-MoU Policy Oversight Committee. He was a member of the DNSO Names Council representing the Registrars Constituency until his selection for the ICANN Board of Directors, and co-chaired DNSO Working Group A on uniform dispute resolution policy.

Mark Ackerman is an associate professor in the Computing, Organizations, Policy, and Society (CORPS) group in Information and Computer Science at the University of California, Irvine. Mark holds a Ph.D. in Information Technologies from MIT as well as a MS in Computer Science from Ohio State and a BA in History in the Social Sciences from the University of Chicago. Prior, he was an R&D software engineer and manager, working on projects as diverse as the X Window System Toolkit (Xt) and the Atari Ms. Pac-Man game. He has published on a variety of topics in computer-supported cooperative work, human-computer interaction, and the social analysis of computerization, attempting to blend social science and computer science methods. Mark edited and co-wrote the original architecture overview spec for P3P and participated in several P3P working groups.

Anne Adams is a PhD student (sponsored by British Telecom) at University College London. Her thesis has identified a model of users' perceptions of privacy in multimedia communications with recommendations for privacy policies and mechanisms. Her findings have also highlighted that current privacy approaches are inadequate for the unique nature of multimedia data. During her research she has also reviewed the usability of security mechanisms (specifically password authentication). She will soon be starting a new project at Middlesex University researching into 'the social impacts of digital library introduction' for both health professionals and university members.

Professor Anita L. Allen-Castellitto is an expert on the law and ethics of privacy. She joined the tenured faculty of the University of Pennsylvania Law School in 1998. Between 1987 and 1998, Professor Allen-Castellitto was a professor and Associate Dean for Research and Scholarship at Georgetown University Law Center. She earned her law degree from Harvard University and her Ph.D. in Philosophy from the University of Michigan (1979). Professor Allen-Castellitto has taught courses on privacy law, constitutional law, legal philosophy, political philosophy, tort law, professional responsibility, and bioethics. She is the author (as Anita L. Allen) of Uneasy Access: Privacy For Women in a Free Society (Rowman and Littlefield, 1988); Privacy Law (with R. Turkington,West Publish. Co., 1999); and Debating Democracy’s Discontent (with M. Regan, eds., Oxford University Press, 1998).

Karl Auerbach is senior researcher in the Advanced Internet Architecture group in the Office of the CTO at Cisco Systems. In addition to his technical work, Mr. Auerbach has been an attorney in California since 1978. He has been working on Internet technology since the early 1970's. Mr. Auerbach has been a long-time member of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Mr. Auerbach founded both Epilogue Technology Corporation and Empirical Tools and Technologies, Inc. He is the co-founder of the Boston Working Group and has been involved in the issue of Internet governance for several years. In his spare time he's does backstage work with a professional theatre company and also is helping to restore a 1923 mainline steam locomotive.

Fred Baker has worked in the telecommunications industry since 1978, building statistical multiplexors, terminal servers, bridges, and routers. At Cisco Systems, his primary interest area is the improvement of Quality of Service for best effort and real time traffic. In addition to product development, as a Cisco Fellow, he advises senior management of industry directions and appropriate corporate strategies. His principal standards contributions have been to the IETF, but he has contributed to ITU's H.323, and to such industry consortia as WINSOCK II and the ATM Forum. In the IETF, he has contributed to Network Management, Routing, PPP and Frame Relay, the Integrated and Differentiated Services architectures, and the RSVP signaling protocol. He currently serves as the IETF Chair, as well as a technical contributor.

David Banisar is an attorney and writer in the Washington, D.C. area specializing in communications, privacy, free speech and freedom of information law and is Deputy Director of Privacy International. He works on privacy related issues including international developments, encryption, wiretapping, and new surveillance technologies. He is the co-author of the annual EPIC/PI Privacy and Human Rights survey of privacy, data protection, surveillance and freedom of information laws around the world and the annual Cryptography and Liberty survey on encryption policy. He was one of the founders of EPIC and was a Staff Counsel and Policy Director from 1994 until April 1999. He has also worked for the Association for Computing's (ACM) US Public Policy Office, Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility, the Prince George's County, MD Public Defenders' Office, and as a computer consultant for a variety of organizations. He is currently a contributing editor for American Lawyer Media's Criminal Justice Weekly and a contributing editor for the Privacy Times and writes for other publications. He co-authored a book with Bruce Schneier on cryptography policy entitled The Electronic Privacy Papers which was published by John Wiley and Sons in September 1997.

Colin Bennett received his Bachelor's and Master's degrees from the University of Wales, and his Ph.D from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Since 1986 he has taught in the Department of Political Science at the University of Victoria, where he is now Associate Professor. He is currently a fellow with the Harvard Information Infrastructure Project, Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University. His research interests have focused on the comparative analysis of information privacy protection policies at the domestic and international levels. He has published Regulating Privacy: Data Protection and Public Policy in Europe and the United States (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1992). He is also co-editor of Visions of Privacy: Policy Choices for the Digital Age (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1999). He has published articles in a variety of political science, public administration and information technology journals. He has completed policy reports for the Canadian Standards Association, Industry Canada, and the European Union. He has given addresses and papers on privacy-related issues in Canada, the United States, Britain, Germany, Australia and New Zealand.

Jerry Berman is the Executive Director of CDT. The Center was founded in December of 1994 by Mr. Berman and Daniel Weitzner. Mr. Berman coordinates CDT's free speech and privacy policy working groups comprised of communications firms, associations and civil liberties groups addressing Internet policy issues. He also chairs the Advisory Committee to the Congressional Internet Caucus. Mr. Berman coordinated the successful Citizens Internet Empowerment Coalition challenge to the Communications Decency Act. Prior to founding the Center for Democracy and Technology, Mr. Berman was a Director of the Electronic Frontier Foundation. Mr. Berman was also Chief Legislative Counsel at the ACLU from 1978-1988 and founder and director of ACLU Projects on Privacy and Information Technology. Mr. Berman received his BA, MA, and LLB at the University of California, Berkeley.

Paulina Borsook ( was a contributing writer at "Wired" during the magazine's early glory years. Her fiction, essays, humor pieces, and journalism on technology and culture have appeared in print at publications ranging from "Newsweek" to "Mother Jones" to "MIT Press Leonardo" to "IEEE Spectrum" and online at publications ranging from "Suck" to "Salon" to "Feed". Her book "Cyberselfish/A Critical Romp Through the Terribly Libertarian Culture of High-Tech" ( will be published by Public Affairs in Spring 2000. To annoy her, a friend set up the Unofficial Paulina Borsook Home Fan Web Page.

Ian Brown is busy co-founding Hidden Footprints Ltd., a startup developing scalable and auditable content delivery services for the Internet. He is also technology policy director of Privacy International, where he has helped organise several conferences and campaigns against key escrow, communications surveillance and CCTV. His main research interests are in network security, the social impact of the Internet, and good beer.

Amy Bruckman is an Assistant Professor in the College of Computing at the Georgia Institute of Technology. She and her students in the Electronic Learning Communities (ELC) research group do research on online communities and education. Current projects include MOOSE Crossing (a text-based virtual world for kids), MediaMOO (a professional community for media researchers, and The Turing Game (a game about identity and deception online). Amy received her PhD from the MIT Media Lab's Epistemology and Learning group in 1997. She received her BA in physics from Harvard University in 1987.

Giovanni Buttarelli is Secretary General to the Italian Data Protection Commission and Vice-President of the Joint Supervisory Authority set up in pursuance of the Schengen Agreement. He is a member of the judiciary and the drafter of the Italian privacy bill, which was passed by Parliament in 1996. During the EU Italian Presidency period, he chaired the Council Working Group which drew up European Directive no. 97/66/EC on the protection of privacy in the telecommunications sector. Mr. Buttarelli authored a number of papers and a book recently published on European and Italian legislation.

L. Jean Camp is an Assistant Professor at the Kennedy School of Government, with a background in EE, CS and public policy. Prof. Camp came to the Kennedy School of Government not only to pursue interdisciplinary research but also to develop a concentration in information and telecommunications policy. Graduates from this concentration can make policy decisions grounded in technical reality. Her research focuses on the intersection between computer science and public policy; governance and technology. Prof. Camp received her Ph.D. at Carnegie Mellon University where her studies combined networks, computer science and public policy.

Duncan Campbell is a freelance investigative journalist and TV producer. In 1976, he revealed the existence and nature of GCHQ (Government Communications Headquarters), the British counterpart of NSA. In 1980, he revealed the existence and nature of the world’s largest electronic spy base at Menwith Hill, Yorkshire, England, as well as the location, existence and capabilities of the British government telephone tapping centre known as Tinkerbell. In 1987, he produced a program revealing the secret plans to construct and launch the first ever British electronic listening satellite, codenamed Zircon. In 1988, he revealed for the first time the ECHELON project, also known as Project P415, for the widespread global automation and enlargement of the spying system on civil international communications. In 1999, as a consultant to the European Parliament, he produced a report containing the first documentary evidence for continued existence of the ECHELON system, and providing an appraisal of its capabilities. 

K.K. Campbell was the first person in Canadian history to bring a newspaper online (March 1994). He's written about the Net since 1991 and is currently the Internet columnist for the Toronto Star. He launched Canada's first mass market Internet column (May 1994). He's written for the Globe & Mail, the Washington Post, Shift, CNet, Profit, Toronto Computes and others. Campbell built a Web design firm whose clients included Hill & Knowlton, Bayer Health Canada and others. He worked closely with baseball pitcher Roger Clemens in 1998, helping the five time Cy winner use the Net to circumvent traditional sports media and speak directly to fans. He's now president of an Internet business communications company.

David Casacuberta is a philosophy professor in the Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain). His current line of research is the cognitive and social impact of new media and he has published several papers about the subject both in electronic and printed format. He is also the former president and founding member of Fronteras Electronicas España (FrEE), an NGO devoted to electronic civil rights and liberties in Spain. He is the main editor of Nirvanet España an e-zine about digital culture and has a weekly cyberrights column in kriptopolis a website devoted to security issues.

Jason Catlett is President and founder of Junkbusters Corp., one of the web's leading resources on privacy and marketing. Dr Catlett's Ph.D. was in Computer Science, which he taught for several years at the University of Sydney, including courses on technology and privacy. In 1992 he moved to AT&T Bell Laboratories in Murray Hill, NJ, where he continued work on "data mining" of large databases. He moderated a panel on "Privacy and Profiling" at CFP'99.

Ann Cavoukian, Ph.D. is a recognized authority on privacy and data protection. She was appointed Information and Privacy Commissioner / Ontario in 1997. As Commissioner, Ann oversees Ontario's freedom of information and privacy laws, which apply to provincial and municipal governments. Ann joined the Commission in 1987, as its first Director of Compliance and was appointed Assistant Commissioner in 1990. Ann received her M.A. and Ph.D. in Psychology from the University of Toronto, where she specialized in criminology, and lectured on psychology and the criminal justice system. Ann frequently speaks to speak at leading forums around the world. Her published works include a book called, Who Knows: Safeguarding Your Privacy in a Networked World (McGraw-Hill), as well as numerous articles in international publications. Ann is particularly interested in advancing privacy through the pursuit of privacy?enhancing technologies.

Angela Choy is the Field Director for the Health Privacy Project at Georgetown University's Institute for Health Care Research and Policy. She works primarily with the Project's Consumer Coalition for Health Privacy, a diverse network of over 75 patient, disability and consumer advocacy organizations engaged in the national and local debate on health privacy. Before joining the Project, Ms. Choy worked on public health issues as a health policy analyst with the U.S. General Accounting Office. She received her law degree from Georgetown University and her MPH from Johns Hopkins University.

Roger Clarke's involvement in privacy matters extends back to 1972. His areas of expertise include electronic commerce and information infrastructure, as well as dataveillance and privacy. His work encompasses strategic and policy consultancy, research and public interest advocacy. He holds degrees from U.N.S.W., and a doctorate from the Australian National University. He spent a decade as a senior information systems academic at the A.N.U., and continues as a Visiting Fellow in the Department of Computer Science. He has been an active participant in Internet communities throughout the 1990s, and provides a substantial public-domain web-site, including the world's most authoritative pages on 'Waltzing Matilda'.

David Colville was first appointed to the Canadian Radio-Television and Telecommunications Commission as a full-time member in September 1990. From November 1990 to June 1991, he was interim Chairman and in December 1992, he was appointed Regional Commissioner for the Atlantic Region. On September 19, 1995 he was appointed CRTC Vice-Chairman responsible for telecommunications. Since David Colville arrived at the Commission, he has been active in decision-making on broadcasting issues and instrumental in developing the Commission's directions and policies on Telecommunications. Before joining the CRTC, Mr. Colville was the Senior Director of Communications Policy with the Nova Scotia Department of Transportation and Communications. During his time there, he developed policies on both broadcasting and telecommunications issues and played a key role in the creation of the Atlantic Educational Television Service, the Nova Scotia Film Development Corporation, and the Nova Scotia Technology Network. From 1970 to 1976, Mr. Colville worked in the telephone industry with Bell Canada in Ottawa and MT&T in Halifax. He holds a B.Sc. in Physics from Saint Mary's University and a B.Eng. in Industrial Engineering from the Nova Scotia Technical College.

Lance Cottrell - an expert in the fields of cryptography, security and online privacy technologies - is the founder and CEO of leading online privacy provider, Anonymizer. Cottrell founded Anonymizer while pursuing his Ph.D. in Astrophysics at the University of California, San Diego. Cottrell's created Mixmaster, the world's most secure anonymous web-based remailer. Cottrell holds a Bachelor of Science degree from the University of California, Santa Cruz, and a Master's degree in Astrophysics from the University of California, San Diego, where he left the Ph.D. program to focus on establishing Anonymizer as the leader in Internet privacy.

Paul W. Craft, CPA, CISA, is employed by the Florida Department of State, Division of Elections as the Administrator of the Division's Voting System Section which is responsible under Florida Law for setting and enforcing standards for electronic voting systems. He represents Florida on the Independent Test Authority Committee (ITA) of the National Association of State Elections Directors. He became convinced that Internet Voting was possible in October 1997, and began researching and formulating related policy. He was named as project director for the Department's internet voting initiative and assigned to represent Florida on the Federal Voter Assistance Program's Alliance Committee to develop an Internet voting pilot project in January 1998.

Lorrie Faith Cranor is a Senior Technical Staff Member in the Secure Systems Research Department at AT&T Labs-Research Shannon Laboratory in Florham Park, New Jersey. She is chair of the Platform for Privacy Preferences Project (P3P) Specification Working Group at the World Wide Web Consortium. Her research has focused on a variety of areas where technology and policy issues interact, including online privacy, electronic voting, and spam. She received her doctorate degree in Engineering & Policy from Washington University in St. Louis in 1996. She plays the tenor saxophone in the Chatham Community Band and spends much of her free time designing and creating quilts.

Malcolm Crompton is Australia's third Federal Privacy Commissioner. He comes to the role at a time where the Federal Government is looking to introduce a new approach to protecting privacy with a "light touch" legislative scheme applying to the private sector. For this phase, Malcolm brings with him experience from a varied background. His work history spans a range of sectors. Most recently between 1996 and 1999, he was Manager of Government Affairs in Canberra for AMP Ltd, a major financial institution. Prior to this he led a varied career in the federal public service holding a number of executive positions in the Federal Department of Finance, including positions as Trustee of Superannuation Schemes. He also worked in the Transport and Health portfolios. A curious career path for someone who started his professional life as a research scientist. Malcolm has a particular interest in online privacy issues and is relishing some of the challenges facing Privacy Commissioners in fulfilling their role in protecting privacy in this new global environment. He sees these challenges more broadly as an opportunity for rethinking governmental structures and the role of regulators in the new environment.

Simon Davies is founder and director of the human rights watchdog Privacy International, and is a Visiting Fellow in the London School of Economics. Over the past fifteen years he has campaigned throughout the world on dozens of privacy issues ranging from identity cards and military surveillance, through to police practices and DNA testing. Simon has participated in CFP since its inception (most notably in the guise of the Pope when he gave the banquet address at CFP 94 in Chicago). CFP now hosts Privacy International's annual Orwell Awards to recognise the heroes and villains of privacy.

Randall Davis is a Professor in the Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department at MIT, where for 5 years he also served as Associate Director of MIT's Artificial Intelligence Laboratory. Dr. Davis has been a seminal contributor to the field of expert systems, where he has worked since 1976. In 1990 he was named a Founding Fellow of the American Association for AI and in 1995 was elected to a two-year term as President of the Association. From 1995-1998 he served on the Scientific Advisory Board of the U. S. Air Force and serves currently on a variety of editorial boards. Dr. Davis has also been active in the area of intellectual property. Most recently he chaired the committee that created the just-published CSTB study entitled "The Digital Dilemma: Intellectual Property in the Information Age."

James X. Dempsey, CDT Senior Staff Counsel, joined CDT at the beginning of 1997. He is working on Fourth Amendment and electronic surveillance issues. Prior to joining CDT, Mr. Dempsey was Deputy Director of the Center for National Security Studies. From 1985 to 1994, Mr. Dempsey was assistant counsel to the House Judiciary Subcommittee on Civil and Constitutional Rights. From 1980 to 1984, Mr. Dempsey was an associate with the Washington, D.C. law firm of Arnold & Porter. He graduated from Harvard Law School in 1979 and from Yale College in 1975. Mr. Dempsey is author of Communications Privacy In The Digital Age: Revitalizing The Wiretap Laws To Enhance Privacy and co-author of Terrorism & the Constitution: Sacrificing Civil Liberties in the Name of National Security (with Prof. David Cole) (1999)

John S. Denker received a BS degree from Caltech and a PhD from Cornell. His research interests have included: ultra-low-noise (quantum-limited) measuring devices; properties of monatomic hydrogen at milliKelvin temperatures; information-theoretic foundations of learning from examples; real-world applications of neural networks (e.g. optical character recognition); highly energy-efficient "adiabatic" electronics; services combining the internet and the telephone network (click-to-dial, internet telephony); novel hardware systems for local telephony; economic and regulatory foundations of communication networks; and hardware and software for internet security and other distributed services. He holds fifteen patents (plus several pending), has written over 60 research papers and one book chapter, and edited the book Neural Networks for Computing. He is presently Division Manager of the Information Services Research Department at AT&T Laboratories.

Julian Dibbell is the author of "My Tiny Life: Crime and Passion in a Virtual World" (Henry Holt), a literary ethnography about the online community LambdaMOO. He has been writing about cyberculture for over a decade, exploring in numerous articles and lectures the social, political, and philosophical dimensions of digital technology. Formerly a contributor to TIME Magazine and before that a columnist at The Village Voice, he now writes as a freelancer for a variety of online and print publications. He lives in South Bend, Indiana, with his wife, Jessica Chalmers, a professor at Notre Dame University.

Whitfield Diffie, who is best known for his 1975 discovery of the concept of public key cryptography, has occupied the position of Distinguished Engineer at Sun Microsystems Inc. since 1991. Prior to this, he was Manager of Secure Systems Research at Northern Telecom, a position he had held since 1978. Diffie is a graduate in mathematics of MIT and Dr. techn. sci. (hc) of the ETH in Zurich. Since 1993, Diffie has worked largely on public policy aspects of cryptography.  His position – in opposition to limitations on the business and personal use of cryptography – has been the subject of articles in the New York Times Magazine, Wired, Omni, and Discover and has been the subject of programs on the Discovery Channel, Equinox TV in Britain, and the Japanese TV network NHK. Diffie is the author, jointly with Susan Landau, of the book Privacy on the Line: the Politics of Wiretapping and Encryption.

Alexander Dix was elected by the Brandenburg State Parliament (Germany) in March 1998 as Commissioner for Data Protection and Access to Information. He took office on June 2, 1998. Prior to his election he served for eight years as Deputy Berlin Data Protection Commissioner. Dr. Dix is a specialist in telecommunications and media and has dealt with a number of issues regarding the cross-border protection of citizen's privacy. He is a member of the International Working Group on Data Protection in Telecommunications and is chairing the Working Party on Media of the German Conference of Data Protection Commissioners. A native of Bad Homburg, Hessen, Alexander Dix graduated from Hamburg University with a degree in law in 1975. He received a Master of Laws degree from London University (London School of Economics) in 1976 and was a Research Fellow at the Hans-Bredow-Institute for Broadcasting and Television at Hamburg University. Before joining the Berlin Data Protection Commissioner he was a Legal Adviser with Heidelberg City Council.

Mark Eckenwiler is Senior Counsel at the Computer Crime and Intellectual Property Section, Criminal Division, U.S. Department of Justice. His areas of expertise include ECPA and federal wiretap law, computer search and seizure, and computer intrusion investigations. A Net veteran for more than 13 years, he writes and lectures frequently about the Internet and criminal law, and serves on the ABA Task Force on Technology and Law Enforcement. Mark holds an A.B. cum laude from Harvard (1982), an M.A. in Classics (Ancient Greek) from Boston University (1986), and a J.D. cum laude from New York University School of Law (1991).

Bob Ellis retired in 1993 as Sun Microsystems' representative on the technology committee of the Computer Systems Policy Project (CSPP) and co-manager of Sun's university research program. Previously, he held computer graphics software development and management positions with Sun, GE-Calma, Atari, Boeing, and Washington University (St. Louis). He received BS and MS degrees in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science from Washington University (St. Louis). Ellis currently serves as the Chair of the Public Policy Committee of ACM's Special Interest Group on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (SIGGRAPH) where he and his committee have focused on bandwidth and other policy issues critical to the development and use of graphics and graphical user interfaces.

Ray Everett-Church is Chief Privacy Officer and VP for Public Policy at, the world's largest and fastest growing Infomediary. He has a national reputation as an expert in the law and policy of e-commerce and privacy. Before joining, he practiced law in the Washington, DC-area and consulted for numerous ISPs, startups, and Internet ventures. A regular commentator on Internet issues in the media, he has testified before the US Congress regarding emerging technology and privacy issues. In his spare time he administers the popular email legal discussion lists Cyberia-L and Cybertelecom-L, both hosted on He may be reached at .

Zack Exley is the creator of, the parody site that caused George W Bush to demand "limits to freedom." Bush's often absurd attacks on have drawn over a million visits to the site. Exley also publishes, which pokes fun at the Internet stock bubble, and is working on, a campaign to help prevent the next war. Exley got his start in politics organizing to prevent the Gulf War while a student at the University of Massachusetts. He went on to work as a union organizer for five years on campaigns with the AFL-CIO, UAW, and SEIU. He is writing a book on the paralysis of the U.S. Left.

Hannes Federrath studied computer science and received his Ph.D. degree from Dresden University of Technology, Germany, in 1998. He is currently a Research Fellow at International Computer Science Institute (ICSI), Berkeley. His research interests are security and cryptography in distributed systems, design of systems for anonymity and unobservability in mobile communication systems and the Internet. He developed several procedures that protect locations of users in GSM wireless mobile telephone systems. Together with his research group in Dresden he is currently developing an anonymous communication system for the Internet that is secure against traffic analysis.

Patrick Feng is a Ph.D. student in the Science and Technology Studies Department at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, NY. His dissertation will focus on the development of "technical" standards that are designed to address social values such as privacy and trust. The World Wide Web Consortium's Platform for Privacy Preferences Project is one example of such a standard. Mr. Feng received his bachelor's degree from McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario, and holds a doctoral fellowship from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada.

David Flaherty is a specialist in the management of privacy and information policy issues. Most recently, he served a six-year term as the first Information and Privacy Commissioner for the Province of British Columbia (1993-99). In 1974 Flaherty began to do comparative public policy work in Europe and North America that led to a series of books, including Protecting Privacy in Surveillance Societies (1989). Flaherty taught at the University of Western Ontario from 1972 to 1993. He is currently an Adjunct professor in political science at the University of Victoria. In the fall of 1999 Flaherty served as a Special Advisor to the Deputy Minister of Industry Canada in support of Bill C-6, the federal Personal Information Protection Act.

Leonard Foner recently defended his doctoral dissertation in the MIT Media Lab Software Agents group. His interests include technical and sociopolitical aspects of computer networking, cryptography, sociology, artificial intelligence, and nanotechnology. In addition, his work at the Lab has included novel uses of wearable computers for human sensory augmentation. His master's thesis, also at the Media Lab, studied agents and the use of focus of attention in enabling efficient machine learning. Before coming to the Lab, he spent three years each at Bitstream, designing expert systems which helped graphic artists make beautiful fonts, and at Symbolics, as a Lisp Machine developer. His bachelor's thesis, from the MIT Artificial Intelligence Lab, was an expert system that debugged ailing networks.

Alex Fowler has dedicated his professional career to addressing societal implications of science and technology. He is the founding Director of the Strategic Initiatives Group of the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF), a new programmatic arm exploring the next wave of information technology issues to impact society. Prior to this role, Alex served as EFF's Director of Public Affairs and represented the organization with the media. Before joining EFF, Alex worked with the Scientific Freedom, Responsibility and Law Program of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. His responsibilities extended to projects on electronic publishing, anonymous communications, cryptography, and intellectual property. Recently, Alex co-founded and became chairman of, a new nonprofit aimed at educating the public about the implications of genetics. He received his graduate degree in Science, Technology and Public Policy at George Washington University, and his undergraduate degree from Brown University in bioethics and music. In addition, Alex studied with cellists Aldo Parisot at the Yale School of Music and Arto Noras at the Sibelius Academy in Helsinki, Finland. To reach Alex, send e-mail to

A. Michael Froomkin is a Professor at the University of Miami School of Law in Coral Gables, Florida, specializing in Internet Law and Administrative Law. He is a member of the Royal Institute of International Affairs in London and serves on the Advisory Boards of the BNA Electronic Information Policy & Law Report and on the Editorial Board of Information, Communication & Society. He recently served as a member of the "Panel of Experts" of the World Intellectual Property Institute's Internet Domain Name Process. He is also a director of, an Internet startup. Professor Froomkin writes primarily about the electronic commerce, electronic cash, privacy, Internet governance, the regulation of cryptography, and U.S. constitutional law.

Jerrard Gaertner is co-founder of dataPrivacy Partners. Mr. Gaertner has over twenty years experience providing assurance services in systems security and related areas. Prior to co-founding dataprivacy Partners, he was responsible for the Systems Assurance Practice of a major multinational accounting firm. Recently, Mr. Gaertner completed an oversight and privacy “certification” engagement for a government client developing a highly visible, multi-million dollar cryptographic and biometric application. He also consulted on the implementation of one of the largest PKI projects in Canada.

Simson L. Garfinkel is a journalist, a high-tech entrepreneur, and an author. As a journalist, Garfinkel writes a weekly column called Simson Says that appears in The Boston Globe (both print and online). The column specializes in information that's useful to ordinary computer users. Garfinkel is a frequent contributor to Wired Magazine. His articles have appeared in more than 50 publications including ComputerWorld, Forbes, The New York Times, and Technology Review. As an entrepreneur, Garfinkel has been a founder or major player in at least four startups, including Vineyard.NET, the premiere Internet Service Provider of Martha's Vineyard, and Sandstorm Enterprises, the company that created the world's first commercial telephone scanner. Garfinkel is also the author or co-author of eight books, published by O'Reilly and Associates, Springer-Verlag, and IDG Books.

Hansjürgen Garstka has been the Berlin Data Protection Commissioner since 1989. He is currently Chairman of the International Working Group on Data Protection in Telecommunications in the framework of the International Conference of Data Protection and Pricacy Commissioners. He is a Member of the Scientific Board of the German Society for Law and Computer Science (DGRI), Member of the Steering Committee of the Department for Law and Administration of the German Society for Computer Science (GI).

Michael Geist is an Assistant Professor of Law at the University of Ottawa Law School in Ottawa, Ontario. Following his 1992 graduation from Osgoode Hall Law School in Toronto, Canada, Professor Geist travelled to Kobe, Japan where, as a Monbusho Scholar, he conducted legal research into foreign investment regulation at the Kobe University School of Law. Before returning to Toronto in 1994, he completed his Master of Laws degree (LL.M.) at Cambridge University in England specializing in commercial and European Union law. Following a year of corporate practice at the Toronto office of Goodman, Phillips & Vineberg, Professor Geist joined the Dalhousie Law School faculty in Halifax, Canada as an Assistant Professor of Law where he taught contracts and corporations law. In 1996, he joined the Columbia Law School faculty as an Associate-in-Law where he taught Legal Research and Writing while completing work towards a Doctorate in Juridical Science (J.S.D.). Professor Geist joined the Ottawa faculty in 1998 where he teaches in the Internet and technology field.

John Gilmore is an entrepreneur and civil libertarian. He was an early employee of Sun Microsystems, and co-founded Cygnus Solutions, the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF), the Cypherpunks, and the Internet's "alt" newsgroups. He has twenty-five years of experience in the computer industry, including programming, hardware and software design, management, and investment. He is a significant contributor to the worldwide open source (free software) development effort. His advocacy efforts on encryption policy aim to improve public understanding of this fundamental technology for privacy and accountability in open societies. He led the team that built the world's first published DES Cracker for EFF. He is a board member of the Internet Society, the Electronic Frontier Foundation, and C2Net Inc.

Beth Givens is Director of the Privacy Rights Clearinghouse, a nonprofit advocacy, research and consumer education program located in San Diego, California. The Clearinghouse was established in 1992 with funding from the California Public Utilities Commission's Telecommunications Education Trust. It is a project of the Utility Consumers’ Action Network, a nonprofit organization which advocates for consumers’ interests regarding telecommunications, energy and the Internet. Givens frequently speaks and conducts workshops on the issue of privacy, and has participated in numerous media interviews. In addition, Givens has been a member of several task forces studying the privacy impacts of technology on society. Givens holds a master's degree in communications management from the Annenberg School for Communication, University of Southern California (1987). She has a background in library and information services, with experience in online research services and library network development (M.L.S., University of Denver, 1975).

For nine years, Mike Godwin served as counsel for the Electronic Frontier Foundation. Godwin has published articles for print and electronic publications on topics such as computer crime, the First Amendment online, and copyright in cyberspace. In 1996-1997, he was one of the counsel of record for the plaintiffs in Reno v. ACLU, the Supreme Court case that established the applicability of First Amendment doctrine to the Internet. In 1998, Godwin published his first book, Cyber Rights: Defending Free Speech in the Digital Age (Times Books), which deals with a number of important cases raising issues about freedom of speech on the Internet. Since 1999 he has served as senior editor for American Lawyer Media’s E-Commerce Law Weekly.

Ian Goldberg is Chief Scientist and Head Cypherpunk of Zero-Knowledge Systems, Inc., a Montreal-based company offering privacy and identity management software to consumers. He is also a PhD candidate in Computer Science at the University of California, Berkeley, where his research interests include privacy-enhancing technologies, security, cryptography, and electronic cash. He is the author of a number of academic papers on these topics, as well as the perl encryption code in Neal Stephenson's book "Cryptonomicon".

Austin Hill is co-founder and president of Zero-Knowledge Systems, Inc., a leading developer of Internet privacy technologies. A frequent lecturer on privacy and security, he has spoken at international venues including COMDEX, Internet World, ISPCON and the 21st International Conference on Privacy and Personal Data Protection. An authority on privacy-related legislative and policy issues, Mr. Hill recently addressed the Federal Trade Commission on the subject of children’s online privacy. He has been quoted or profiled in leading publications including the Los Angeles Times, the New York Times, USA Today, BusinessWeek, Red Herring, Time and Wired magazine. Mr. Hill has built three Internet companies from the ground up – beginning with his first at age 17. Before co-founding Zero-Knowledge Systems, Mr. Hill was founder and president of Infobahn Online Services, which merged to form TotalNet, one of Canada’s most successful Internet companies to date. Prior to TotalNet, he created Cyberspace Data Security, an early network security consulting firm.

Harry Hochheiser is a graduate student in the Department of Computer Science and a member of the Human-Computer Interaction Lab at the University of Maryland. His research interests include information visualization, menu system design, computer systems usability, and the social impact of computers. Since 1997, he has served as Director-at-Large of Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility. He was the primary author of CPSR's filtering FAQ and has participated in CPSR's Internet Governance activities.

Lance J. Hoffman is known for his research on computer security and risk analysis, and for his interdisciplinary work in computer privacy issues. Professor of Computer Science at The George Washington University in Washington, D. C., he is in charge of the computer security graduate program in computer science. He is the author or editor of five books and numerous articles on computer security and privacy. Dr. Hoffman has headed a number of cryptographic policy projects and is Director of the School of Engineering's Cyberspace Policy Institute. His most recent readings book, Building in Big Brother, was the first book devoted to the topic of cryptography policy. Dr. Hoffman has served as general chairman of the Conference on Computers, Freedom, and Privacy; he also sits on the Advisory Committee of the Center for Democracy and Technology and is GW’s representative to the Advisory Committee of the World Wide Web Consortium. He authored a study "Making Every Vote Count" for the Markle Foundation in the late 1980's on electronic voting based on a workshop he organized of election officials, technology vendors, and other stakeholders.

Tad Hogg is a member of the Internet Ecologies group at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center. His research interests include mechanisms to enhance privacy for Web-based communities, market-like algorithms for multiagent systems, distributed controls for collections of micromachines ("smart matter"), and phase transition behaviors in combinatorial search and their use for designing quantum computer algorithms. He received a BS from Caltech and a PhD from Stanford in physics.

Peter Hope-Tindall is President and CEO of dataPrivacy Partners. Mr. Hope-Tindall is former Special Advisor to the Information and Privacy Commissioner of the Government of Ontario. His professional practice focuses on privacy policy formulation, legislation and the design of privacy protective systems incorporating biometrics, cryptography and other advanced technologies. In April 1998, Mr. Hope-Tindall was one of a handful of experts from across Canada invited to participate in the National Cryptography Policy Round Table, which ultimately provided the strategic direction for Canada’s cryptography policy. Mr. Hope-Tindall recently completed a pre-implementation review of a 40,000 certificate commercial PKI for a major telecommunications company.

Ian (Gus) Hosein is a Tutorial Fellow and doctoral student at the London School of Economics. For three years Gus has lectured to undergraduate and postgraduate students on privacy, philosophy and politics of technology, regulation, cryptography policy, networks, and the concept of the Information Society. In his spare time he works with Privacy International, is a Policy Counsel for ZeroKnowledge Systems, and is an Advisory Council member of the Foundation for Information Policy Research. A Toronto native, he is a survivor of the University of Waterloo; but now lives in England partly because of the prevalence of pubs.

Christopher D. Hunter is a Ph.D. candidate at the Annenberg School for Communication of the University of Pennsylvania. His research focuses on Internet content filtering and rating technologies, online privacy, and trusted systems.

Deborah Hurley is the Director of the Harvard Information Infrastructure Project at Harvard University. Ms. Hurley was an official (1988-96) of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Paris, France. At the OECD, Ms. Hurley wrote the seminal report on information network security (1989) and was responsible for the drafting, negotiation and adoption by OECD member countries of the 1992 OECD Guidelines for Security of Information Systems. In the early 1990s, she initiated the OECD activities on cryptography technologies and policy. From 1983 through 1988, Ms. Hurley practiced intellectual property and computer law in the United States (1983-88). She is a member of the Advisory Committee to the U.S. State Department on International Communications and Information Policy, the Advisory Board of the Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC), and the AAAS Advisory Committee on International Science.

David Jefferson is a Senior Member of the Research Staff at Compaq Systems Research Center in Palo Alto, CA, where he has been doing research on the use of the Internet in public elections for over five years. Recently he served as the chair of the technical committee for the California Secretary of State's Internet Voting Task Force. He is also a Director, and former Chairman of the Board, of the California Voter Foundation, a nonprofit, nonpartisan organization dedicated to a more informed California electorate, especially through use of the Internet. Prior to joining Compaq he was for many years a professor of computer science, first at the University of Southern California and then at UCLA, where he conducted research in parallel computation and numerous other fields. He holds a Ph.D. in Computer Science from Carnegie-Mellon University.

Liss Jeffrey, (A.B.Harvard College magna cum laude Social Relations, Master of Environmental Studies, York University, Ph.D. Communications, McGill University) teaches graduate seminars on communications history, new media and policy as an Adjunct Professor at the University of Toronto's McLuhan Program in Culture and Technology. A McLuhan scholar, in 1998, she initiated the CoachHouse Festival at the University of Toronto, and "Many Dimensions: The Extensions of Marshall McLuhan", an international academic conference. She directs the byDesign eLab, a new media and policy incubator and member-owned associates network. She founded the lab with her team in 1997 to support innovative approaches to teaching new media and policy, to conduct digital democracy experiments including online citizen forums, and to engage in participant design of accessible electronic public space for civil society.

Barak Jolish is a member of the Electronic Commerce and Internet Law Practice Group at Hancock Rothert & Bunshoft, LLP. Mr. Jolish has published extensively in the area of Internet law, and co-authored the treatise Intellectual Property and Unfair Competition in Cyberspace. Mr. Jolish also co-authors the column “Upside Counsel,” and advises clients on Internet-related legal matters.

Lisa Kamm is currently the Program Manager for Information Architecture and Usability for the website, and her responsibilities include work on privacy issues and cookies in addition to a wide range of interface design work. Prior to working for IBM, Lisa worked at several web design agencies, as the Legal Application Web Developer for the Fund for the City of New York, and she spent a year as the William Brennan First Amendment Fellow at the ACLU where she worked on cryptography and other First Amendment issues related to the internet.

Paul Kendall, General Counsel for the Office of Justice Programs (OJP), is the Executive Chairman of OJP's Information Technology Executive Council, as well as Chairman of the Executive Council's Inter-governmental Information Sharing Working Group, the Intelligence Systems Policy Review Board, and the Privacy Task Force. Mr. Kendall is leading a variety of efforts in developing state and local coordinated information technology programs, and is leading the Intelligence Systems Policy Review Board's examination of legal and public policy issues associated with information sharing. Prior to his arrival at the Office of Justice Programs, Mr. Kendall held positions of Senior Counsel at the Federal Mine Safety Board, and Assistant General Counsel of the Legal Services Corporation, as well as other positions in public and private practice. Mr. Kendall received his Bachelor of Arts from Columbia College of Columbia University, his Masters in Business Administration from the University of Maryland, and his Juris Doctor from The Catholic University of America, Columbus School of Law. Publications include Legislation: A New Design for Justice Integration, 30 MCGEORGE L. REV. 9 (1998).

Jordan Kessler attended Columbia College in New York and is a Summa Cum Laude, Phi Beta Kappa graduate of that institution. Kessler is Senior Research Analyst at the Anti-Defamation League, where he monitors Internet hate on a full-time basis. He regularly researches and writes reports for ADL, often speaks on the topic of online bigotry, and plays a major role in numerous other Internet-related projects for the League. Most recently, he spoke at the New York State Bar Association's Annual Meeting. He has also presented at the Colorado Hate Crime Summit sponsored by the U.S. Attorney in Denver and ADL's Mountain States Regional Office; at the National District Attorney's Association Conference in Palm Beach; and at "From Crisis to Collaboration," an event hosted by ADL and the Federal Bureau of Investigation in Chicago.

Marit Köhntopp, computer scientist, is head of the Department of Privacy-Enhancing Technologies (PET) at the Privacy Commissioner's Office Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. Since 1995 she has been working on security and privacy aspects especially concerning the Internet, anonymity and pseudonymity, biometrics, multilateral security, negotiation, in short: all kinds of privacy-enhancing and privacy-sympathetic technologies with both the technical and the jurisdictional point of view. In several projects she and her team actively participate in technology design in order to support PET and to give feedback to the legislation. She is a member of the Steering Committee of the German Society for Law and Computer Science (DGRI) and a member of the Working Group on Reliable IT Systems of the German Society for Computer Science (GI).

David M. Kristol is currently a Member of Technical Staff at Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies, in the Information Sciences Research Center, where he works on Internet billing and accounting. In the privacy arena, he co-authored RFC 2109, the IETF's "cookie" specification, implemented the Lucent Personalized Web Assistant (LPWA), and implemented the prototype of a new JavaScript security model. Previously, he participated actively in HTTP standardization, and he has worked on formal specifications for communications protocols. Earlier, he was the principal developer of the Unix System V ANSI C compiler. Kristol holds degrees from the University of Pennsylvania and Harvard University.

Stephen K M Lau was appointed in July 1996 as the first Privacy Commissioner for Hong Kong with responsibility to promote and enforce compliance with the Personal Data (Privacy) Ordinance which was enacted to provide adequate protection for the use of individuals' personal data in both the public and private sectors. Mr Lau has split his 30 years' experience in the information technology and banking industries between the government and private sectors. He has formerly held positions with EDS Hong Kong and the Asia division of Citicorp's International Banking and Finance sectors. Prior to that he was the Data Processing Manager for the Hong Kong Government Data Processing Agency.

Jim T.M. Lin is Professor and Chairman in the Department of Information Management, School of Management at the National Central University, Taiwan. He is also a consultant for China Times Interactive in Taiwan. He has extensively published commentary articles related to information privacy issue in Taiwanese newspaper and he is currently doing a series of research regarding the behavioral aspects of information ethics. He organizes an online forum on the managerial issues of information ethics in Taiwan. Dr. Lin holds a doctoral degree from the University of Western Ontario. His email address is

Jessica Litman is Professor of Law at Wayne State University in Detroit, Michigan, where she teaches courses in copyright law, Internet law and trademarks and unfair competition. This semester she is visiting at New York University Law School. She is the author of many articles on intellectual property; her work has been cited by the Supreme Court and reprinted in House hearings. Professor Litman has testified before Congress and before the White House Information Infrastructure Task Force’s Working Group on Intellectual Property.  She is a past trustee of the Copyright Society of the USA and a past Chair of the American Association of Law Schools Section on Intellectual Property. She has served on the program committee for the Telecommunications Policy Research Conference.  She is an Academic Advisor to the American Committee on Interoperable Systems, and a member of the Intellectual Property and Internet Committee of the ACLU and the advisory board of Cyberspace Law Abstracts.

Giancarlo Livraghi has a degree in philosophy from Milan University. He is basically a writer. Early in his career he became a copywriter in advertising; much to his surprise, he was promoted into "management", as what they now call a "creative director" - and then more. In 1966 he was appointed CEO of McCann-Erickson in Milan, which five years later became the largest advertising agency in Italy. He was chairman of the European new business committee and head of Southern Europe (happily nicknamed the "garlic belt"). In 1975 he was moved to New York as executive vp of McCann-Erickson International. He returned to Italy in 1980 as the majority partner of Livraghi, Ogilvy & Mather, then a small agency that grew thirtyfold in the following years. He left the agency business in 1993 and is now predominantly interested in the human and cultural values of electronic communication. He is a "militant" advocate of net freedom and culture. In 1994 he was one of the founders, and the first chairman, of ALCEI Electronic Frontiers Italy.

Myles Losch (CDP) is a telecom planner and information technology (IT) analyst. Working within ACM SIGGRAPH's Public Policy Committee, he organized CFP99 and CFP98 sessions on broadband Internet access. His IT policy background includes a decade of conference session planning and magazine writing. A veteran of software development and telecom technology positions at Atlantic Richfield and Southern California Gas, he plans telecom and public policy programs for ACM's Los Angeles chapter. In IEEE's L.A. Section, Losch is chair of the Society on the Social Implications of Technology, and Computer Society vice chair. His B.S. in geology is from CCNY.

Steven Lucas is Chief Information Officer, Privaseek, Inc. A prominent voice on the issue of consumer privacy, Dr. Lucas has taken leadership positions in a number of the issues key organizations, including Chair of the Syntax and Encoding Group of Privacy Preferences Projects (P3P) within the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C); the Editor of the Protocols and Data Transport Working Group on the Platform for P3P; and a member of the board of directors for TRUSTe. He also is a member of the U.S. delegation to the European Union Data Directive and the U.S. Model Contract Working Group. Lucas is an expert in privacy law, electronic commerce, computer security, database marketing and database technology. Prior to joining PrivaSeek, Dr. Lucas was CIO for Excite@Home's MatchLogic division. Dr. Lucas received his Ph.D. from Stanford University. He also received a B.S. in Electrical Engineering from the Citadel and an MBA from New Hampshire College.

Kate Lundy was elected to the Australian Federal Parliament in 1996 where at 28, she became the youngest woman ever elected to represent the Australian Labor Party. Following re-election in 1998, Senator Lundy was appointed to the Opposition front bench, where she holds the position of Shadow (opposition) Minister for Information Technology, Sport and Youth Affairs. Active on several Senate Committees, including Finance & Public Administration and Environment, Communications, Information Technology & the Arts, Senator Lundy's main policy interest is the Internet. She is also a member of the Presiding Officers' Information Technology Advisory Committee. Senator Lundy built and maintains her own web site at and was awarded the Australian Computer Society's "Most Computer Literate Politician" Award back in 1996. She says its all relative.... Her constituency is the Australian Capital Territory, home of Australia's national capital, Canberra, where she worked as a construction laborer from the age of 16 before becoming active in the Labor movement.

Andrew R. Mark is president of Smart Tone, Inc. Andrew is the inventor of numerous consumer products as well as the recipient of well over a dozen United States and international patents. Currently, his main areas of research are biometrics, privacy/security in telecommunications and light-pipes.

C. Dianne Martin is a Professor in the Computer Science Department at the George Washington University and currently on loan to the National Science Foundation as a Computer Science Program Director in the Division of Undergraduate Education. She is Chair of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) Special Interest Group in Computers and Society (SIGCAS), was co-chair of the ACM Policy98 Conference, and is on the Board of Directors of Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility (CPSR). Dr. Martin was the Chairman of the Board of the Recreational Software Advisory Council (RSAC) and is now a member of the Internet Content Rating Association (ICRA) Board of Directors and ICRA Rating System Advisory Board.

Greg Miller is MedicaLogic's (Nasdaq:MDLI) Chief Internet Strategist as well as their Director of Governmental Affairs. Mr. Miller has over 21 years of experience in the development of the commercial Internet dating back to the days of the Arpanet. He is a trained computer scientist, with graduate business education in marketing and a law degree with emphasis on intellectual property, complex federal litigation, industrial organization, and public policy. His focus at MedicaLogic is in the areas of strategic business planning and relations development, M&A, and governmental affairs. He leads MedicaLogic's efforts in regulatory compliance and stays abreast of legislative developments affecting online patient records, privacy and security. Recently, Greg was appointed by the Federal Trade Commission to a special advisory council on consumer access and privacy online.

Marita Moll is the head of research and technology at the Canadian Teachers' Federation (CTF), and a volunteer research associate for the Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives (CCPA). She has written and spoken widely about the impacts of globalization and deregulation on education and the role of new technologies in this process. She is the editor of Tech High: Globalization and the Future of Canadian Education, a set of critical essays in which leading Canadian educators present research and observations on the impact of new technologies on education. She has recently contributed to and compiled a set of essays deconstructing the common 'but it's only a tool' rationale for the use of information and communications technologies in education (forthcoming, CCPA -- April 2000).

Andrea Monti, lawyer, graduated in criminal law at University of Teramo and has post-graduate degrees in Criminal Anthropology at University of Chieti and in IT-Law at University "La Sapienza", Rome. He is lecturer in Public Law at University of Chieti and in Criminal Law at University of Teramo, and writes monthly columns on internet related legal matters in the Italian edition of "PC Magazine" and in "Web Marketing Tools". He is co-author of two books: Spaghetti Hacker (a history of Italian hacking) and Segreti, spie, codici cifrati (on encryption history, law and technology). A free speech and civil rights advocate, he joined ALCEI in 1995 and is the current chairman of the association.

Deirdre Mulligan is staff counsel at CDT. Deirdre's work focuses on developing legal and technological means to increase individual control over personal information held by commercial and governmental parties. Prior to the formation of CDT Deirdre worked at the Electronic Frontier Foundation's Technology project. While attending Georgetown University Law School, Deirdre worked part-time at the American Civil Liberties Union's Privacy & Technology Project. Deirdre worked with Janlori Goldman, a Deputy Director of CDT, on a variety of issues including caller ID, access to credit records and the FBI's National Crime Information Center. Deirdre graduated from Smith College in 1988, where she studied architecture and art history. She is an avid soccer player.

Tim O’Reilly is the founder and CEO of O’Reilly & Associates, Inc. O’Reilly is the most-respected name in computer book publishing today, but in addition to educating the elite programmers and webmasters who drive technology forward, the company has played a major role in several pivotal transitions in the computer industry. O’Reilly’s Whole Internet User’s Guide and Catalog first brought the web to the attention of the NCSA team who built Mosaic; its GNN (Global Network Navigator) was the first Internet portal (and in fact the web’s first commercial website); O’Reilly’s championship of Open Source technologies such as Linux, Apache and Perl has now once again landed it on the front pages of industry and national publications. In addition to its book publishing operations, O’Reilly also runs a successful series of conferences on leading edge technologies and produces web software. Through the O’Reilly Network, the company manages several important web sites, including and Tim is on the boards of ActiveState Tool Corp, Collab.Net, Invisible Worlds, and EPit. He received Infoworld’s Industry Achievement Award for 1998.

Paul Perry is a Program Manager at Microsoft, currently working on, a small business portal. He was a lead engineer and program manager for the Microsoft Passport, architecting key security and privacy features for the internet-wide authentication service. He also led the development of the PrivacyWizard, a privacy policy generator for web sites. He was a Principal Engineer at Firefly Network Inc, and has been a contributing member of the W3C P3P Working Group. He is a graduate of Computer Science from Dartmouth College.

David Phillips is an Assistant Professor of Radio/Television/Film at the University of Texas at Austin. He holds a doctorate in Communications from the Annenberg School of the University of Pennsylvania. He is the author of "The Social Construction of a Secure, Anonymous Electronic Payment System: Frame Alignment and Mobilization around Ecash" in Journal of Information Technology and "Cryptography, Secrets, and the Structuring of Trust" in Agre and Rotenberg (Eds.) Technology and Privacy: The New Landscape. He can be reached at or at

Deborah Pierce is a staff attorney for the EFF, the premiere civil liberties organization for the online world. Ms. Pierce specifically works on issues related to electronic privacy, database information collection and personal identity. She has spoken publicly on privacy issues to local bar associations and was a panelist for the First Amendment Coalition's debate about privacy and the First Amendment. Ms. Pierce is currently on the Federal Trade Commission's advisory panel on online privacy. She has also worked with private industry to educate them about information gathering issues and the privacy interests of their customers.

Ronald L. Plesser focuses on information, privacy, communications, computer and intellectual property law, with particular emphasis on issues that concern data base companies, publishers, and other companies affected by the emergence of new information technologies. He represents trade associations and individual companies in the field of publishing, electronic communication and marketing, before the U.S. Congress, administrative agencies and the courts of the United States. Mr. Plesser has been an adjunct professor at the National Law Center of The George Washington University and is a past Chair of the Individual Rights and Responsibilities Section of the American Bar Association. He also served as Deputy Director of the Science, Space, and Technology Cluster of the 1992 Clinton-Gore Transition, with primary responsibility for review of the Federal Communications Commission.

David Post is currently an Associate Professor of Law at Temple University Law School, where he teaches intellectual property law and the law of cyberspace. He is also the Co-Editor of ICANN Watch, Co-Founder/Co-Director of the Cyberspace Law Institute, and Co-Director of After attending Georgetown Law Center, from which he graduated summa cum laude in 1986, he clerked with then-Judge Ruth Bader Ginsburg on the DC Circuit Court of Appeals, spent 6 years practicing intellectual property and high technology commercial transactions law at the Washington D.C. law firm of Wilmer, Cutler & Pickering, and clerked a second time for Justice Ginsburg during her first term at the Supreme Court of the United States. He also has a Ph.D. in physical anthropology and taught in the Anthropology Department of Columbia University (1976-1981). During 1996-1997 he conducted, along with two colleagues (Professors Larry Lessig and Eugene Volokh) the first Internet-wide e-mail course on "Cyberspace Law for Non-Lawyers," which attracted over 20,000 subscribers. He also plays guitar, piano, banjo, and harmonica in the band "Bad Dog".

Rohan Samarajiva is currently Associate Professor of Communication, Public Policy and Management and Senior International Specialist at the National Regulatory Research Institute at the Ohio State University in Columbus, USA. His research and teaching interests are in the areas of social implications of information-communication technologies, with emphasis on telecommunication policy and regulation and emerging interactive technologies. His research on the institutional aspects of telecommunication networks includes work on surveillance/privacy, trust and freedom of expression. Samarajiva served as Director General of Telecommunications of Sri Lanka in 1998-99. He is a member of the International Telecommunication Union's Expert Group on International Telecommunication Regulations. He is founding co-editor of the journal, New Media & Society, and serves on the editorial boards of the journals Communication Law & Policy and Telecommunications Policy.

Pamela Samuelson is a Professor at the University of California at Berkeley with a joint appointment in the School of Information Management & Systems as well as in the School of Law where she is Co-Director of the Berkeley Center for Law & Technology. She has written and spoken extensively about the challenges that new information technologies pose for traditional legal regimes, especially for intellectual property law. In June of 1997 she was named a Fellow of the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. She has also been also been a Public Policy Fellow of the Electronic Frontier Foundation and a Fellow of the Association of Computing Machinery. In March of 1998, the National Law Journal named her as one of the fifty most outstanding women lawyers in the U.S.

Tomas Sander received a Ph.D. in Mathematics from the University of Dortmund, Germany in 1996. From September 1996 to September 1999 he was a postdoctoral researcher at the International Computer Science Institute in Berkeley. In October 1999 he joined InterTrust Technologies. There he is a member of research staff at STAR Lab. His research interests include cryptography, computer security, electronic commerce and computational mathematics.

Karl J. Sandstrom was nominated to the Federal Election Commission by President William Clinton on July 13, 1998, and confirmed by the U.S. Senate on July 30, 1998. Prior to his appointment Commissioner Sandstrom served as Chairman of the Administrative Review Board at the Department of Labor. From 1988 to 1992 he was Staff Director of the House Subcommittee on Elections, during which time he also served as the Staff Director of the Speaker of the House's Task Force on Electoral Reform. From 1979 to 1988, Mr. Sandstrom served as the Deputy Chief Counsel to the House Administration Committee of the House of Representatives. In addition, he has taught public policy as an Adjunct Professor at the American University. Commissioner Sandstrom received a B.A. degree from the University of Washington, a J.D. degree from George Washington University, and a Masters of the Law of Taxation from Georgetown University Law Center.

Margot Freeman Saunders has been the Managing Attorney of the Washington office of the National Consumer Law Center since 1991. Margot's duties include representing the interests of low income clients in Congress on electronic commerce issues, financial credit issues, and water and energy matters. She has testified on numerous occasions before various Congressional committees on the impact of various proposals on low income households, and recently completed terms as a member of the Federal Reserve Board's Consumer Advisory Council, and the American Water Works Association Public Advisory Forum. She is coauthor of a number of books, including Access to Utility Service (NCLC 1996), Energy and the Poor: The Crisis Continues (NCLC 1995), Tenants' Rights to Utility Service (1994), and The Manual on Water Affordability Programs (AWWA, 1998), as well as a numerous articles on consumer and utilities laws as they affect low income people in the United States.

Timothy D. Schoechle received his BS in Administrative Science from Pepperdine University in 1973, his MS in Telecommunications from the University of Colorado in 1995, and expects to complete his Ph.D. in Communication at the University of Colorado in 2000. He has been active in hardware and software engineering as an entrepreneur and consultant for over 25 years; and he currently serves on the faculty of the Interdisciplinary Telecommunications Program at the University of Colorado and as the Associate Director of the International Center for Standards Research. Mr. Schoechle represents the U.S. as secretary of the international standards committee on Home Electronic Systems and is currently working on a doctoral dissertation on the topic of international standardization and public policy formation.

Berry Schoenmakers is Assistant Professor at Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands), where he specializes in cryptography. Before he has worked with DigiCash and as a postdoc in David Chaum's crypto group at CWI. He (co-)authored several papers on cryptographic protocols for privacy-protecting payments and electronic voting. He worked on the design of electronic payment systems, in particular on the eCash(tm) system, also while taking part in the EU projects CAFE and SEMPER. He also designed and implemented an online voting system that uses a universally verifiable protocol; this prototype was used as the voting engine for a small-scale shadow election of the Dutch national elections in May 1998. He received his MS and PhD degrees in Computing Science from Eindhoven University in 1988 and 1992, resp.

Ari Schwartz is a policy analyst at CDT. Ari's work focuses on protecting and building privacy protections in the digital age by advocating for increased individual control over personal information held by commercial and governmental parties. He also works on issues related to expanding access to government information via the Internet, and issues of online advocacy and civil society. Ari is a regular columnist for Federal Computer Week Magazine and is on the Program Committee for CFP2000. Prior to working at CDT, Ari worked at OMB Watch researching and analyzing the nonprofit engagement in technology, government performance, access to government information, and government information technology policy. Ari is a native of the Detroit area.

Paul M. Schwartz is a Professor of Law at Brooklyn Law School (Brooklyn, New York). He is a leading international expert in the field of informational privacy who has published and lectured on issues concerning computers and privacy in the United States and Europe. In this country, his articles and essays have appeared in periodicals such as the Columbia Law Review, Texas Law Review, Vanderbilt Law Review, Hastings Law Journal, Iowa Law Review, American Journal of Comparative Law, and the Partisan Review. He is the co-author of DATA PRIVACY LAW (1996), the most in-depth study of the privacy protection provided for personal information in the United States, and ON-LINE SERVICES: REGULATORY RESPONSES (1998), a study carried out for the Commission of the European Union that examines emerging issues in Internet privacy in four European countries.

Sheridan Elizabeth Scott is Chief Regulatory Officer of Bell Canada. Ms Scott's responsibilities include maintaining regulatory relationships with the CRTC, the Commissioner of Competition, the Copyright Board and the FCC. She also oversees public policy issues for Bell Canada, Nexxia and ActiMedia, particularly with respect to the Internet and e-commerce. Prior to her appointment on August 1, 1999, Ms Scott was Vice President - Office of the President. Ms Scott is the author of several articles on communications law. She is Director and Vice-Chair of Canadian Women in Communications (CWC); Founding member, National Capital Association of Communications Lawyers (NCACL); Director of Opera Lyra Ottawa; Director and Vice-Chair of the Bell Broadcast and New Media Fund as well as a member of the Ontario Digital Media Growth Fund. She recently joined the Board of the Internet Content Rating Association (ICRA).

Adam Shostack is Most Evil Genius at Zero-Knowledge Systems, Inc., where he is responsible for advanced technology research and development. His research interests include privacy technologies, and the design and analysis of secure systems, and processes for their implementation. He has written papers on code reviews, smartcards, and other topics.

Sanyin Siang works on a variety of issues dealing with the legal and ethical aspects of information technology at the Directorate for Science and Policy Programs of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Her areas of interest and expertise include biomedical ethics, cryptography, cyberterrorism and Internet privacy. She recently co-authored a report on the "Ethical and Legal Aspects of Human Subjects Research on the Internet." Siang is Deputy Editor of the Association's quarterly newsletter, Professional Ethics Report and Associate Online Editor for the American Bar Association's Science & Technology Section newsletter, eBLAST. She is also a frequent contributor to ScienceNOW and Science magazine in the arena of science journalism. Siang received her B.S.E. in biomedical engineering from Duke University.

Barbara Simons was elected President of ACM in 1998. Prior to becoming ACM President, Simons chaired ACM's U.S. Technology Policy Committee (USACM), and the ACM Committee for Scientific Freedom and Human Rights. She is a Fellow of ACM and of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). Simons earned her Ph.D. in computer science from U.C. Berkeley. She became a Research Staff Member at IBM's San Jose Research Center (now Almaden), where she did research on scheduling theory, compiler optimization, and fault tolerant distributed computing. She then joined IBM's Applications Development Technology Institute and subsequently served as senior technology advisor for IBM Global Services. Simons was selected by c|net as one of its 26 Internet "Visionaries" and was named one of the "Top 100 Women in Computing" by Open Computing. She received the CPSR Norbert Wiener Award for Professional and Social Responsibility in Computing and the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) Pioneer Award.

Eric J. Sinrod is a partner in the San Francisco office of the national U.S. law firm, Duane, Morris & Heckscher LLP. Mr. Sinrod advises clients on issues of commercial law and Internet liability, and has had significant trial and appellate experience reaching up to the United States Supreme Court. Mr. Sinrod has also lectured and written extensively about the law of the Internet, and recently completed a treatise titled  Intellectual Property and Unfair Competition in Cyberspace.  He is also one of the authors of “Upside Counsel,” a weekly legal affairs column in the online magazine Mr. Sinrod is on the Editorial Board of the Journal of Internet Law, a member of the ABA Internet Industry Committee, and a member of the Executive Committee of the Law Practice Management & Technology Section of the State Bar of California.

Ben Smilowitz, originally from West Hartford, CT, co-founded the International Student Activism Alliance (ISAA) in November 1996. He served as the organization¹s leader from 11/96 until 6/99 and helped the organization grow to over 180 chapters nation-wide. In his junior year of high school, Ben won a major legislative victory in Connecticut after he led a year-long campaign to pass a bill he wrote that created seats for two students on the CT State Board of Education. Ben is currently a freshman at Washington University in St. Louis, MO and he recently founded the United States Student Union.

Robert Ellis Smith is a journalist who uses his training as an attorney to report on the individual’s right to privacy.  Since 1974, he has published Privacy Journal, a monthly newsletter on privacy in a computer age. It is based in Providence, R.I. Smith is a frequent speaker, writer, and Congressional witness on privacy issues and has compiled a clearinghouse of information on the subject: computer data banks, credit and medical records, the Internet, electronic surveillance, the law of privacy, and physical and psychological privacy. Smith is the author of Ben Franklin's Web Site: Privacy and Curiosity from Plymouth Rock to the Internet, a 416-page book on the history of privacy, published in the spring of 2000. He has also written Our Vanishing Privacy (1993) and The Law of Privacy Explained (1993), as well as Privacy: How to Protect What’s Left of It. Privacy Journal also publishes Compilation of State and Federal Privacy Laws.

Barry Steinhardt has served as Associate Director of the ACLU since 1991. He is chair of the ACLU Cyber-liberties and Privacy Task Forces, which together coordinate the ACLU's extensive program on information technology issues. He was a co-founder of the Global Internet Liberty Campaign (GILC), the world's first international coalition of Non- Governmental Organizations concerned with the rights of Internet users. In 1998, Steinhardt took a leave of absence from the ACLU to serve as President of the Electronic Frontier Foundation.(EFF). Among other activities at EFF, Steinhardt led an international study mission which examined the development of Internet policy in the Baltic Nations.

Neal Stephenson is author of Cryptonomicon, the cyberpunk classic Snow Crash, the Hugo Award-winning The Diamond Age, and Zodiac: The Eco Thriller. He has written for Wired and is one of three authors ever to write a fiction piece for Time magazine. Stephenson is one of six visiting fellows at Ernst & Young’s Center for Business Innovation in Cambridge, Massachusetts. He has an almost prophetic vision of the future and a cult following among high-tech thinkers. Growing up in Champaign-Urbana, Illinois and Ames, Iowa, Stephenson decided he never wanted to work in an occupation that forced him to wear hard shoes. In this vein, he began college as physics major at Boston University. Stephenson was lured to study geography because that department had better computers. A capable programmer and acclaimed writer, he finds it hard to work unless he’s listening to music on headphones. Since 1984, he has lived mostly in the Pacific Northwest and has made a living out of writing novels and the occasional magazine article. Currently he makes his home in the Seattle area with his family.

In March, 1999 Peter Swire entered into his position as the United States Government's Chief Counselor for Privacy, in the Office of Management and Budget. Professor Swire is currently on leave from the Ohio State University College of Law and from editorship of the Cyberspace Law Abstracts. He is author of numerous articles on privacy and other topics as well as co-author of None of Your Business: World Data Flows, Electronic Commerce, and the European Privacy Directive, published by the Brookings Institution in 1998. Professor Swire graduated summa cum laude from Princeton University and received his J.D. from the Yale Law School.

Steve Talbott is editor of the highly respected online newsletter, NetFuture – Technology and Human Responsibility.  He is also author of The Future Does Not Compute: Transcending the Machines in Our Midst. The library journal, Choice, selected this book for its annual list of the “Outstanding Academic Books” of the year. Unix Review named it one of the “Best Books of 1995.” Talbott is a senior researcher at The Nature Institute in Ghent, New York, where he explores the social, historical, and philosophical foundations of science and technology. In his frequent appearances as a public speaker, he addresses how modern technologies challenge us as individuals and as a society.

Jim Tam. Over the past twenty years as a senior management and technical professional, both in the public and private sectors, Dr. Tam has extensive experiences in the management, design and development of system projects of significant size and complexity. His areas of expertise include information exploration and retrieval, system security and data privacy, system architecture mapping, and parallel processing. Currently, he is an associate professor in the School of Information Technology Management, Ryerson Polytechnic University, Toronto, Canada. His applied research interest is mainly focused on data privacy control, both technically and legally, in asynchronous and synchronous collaborative systems.

Christopher Taylor is Senior Vice President, Law and Regulatory Affairs at the Canadian Cable Television Association. Prior to joining the CCTA in 1999, he practiced public law in Ottawa, Ontario with a special focus on telecommunications and broadcasting matters. He has also worked in the software and communications industry and taught mathematics prior to beginning his legal career.

Mozelle W. Thompson was sworn in as a Commissioner on the Federal Trade Commission December 17, 1997. Mr. Thompson most recently held the position of Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary at the Department of the Treasury. Prior to joining the Treasury Department, Mr. Thompson served as Senior Vice President and General Counsel to the New York State Finance Agency and as an attorney with the New York firm of Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher and Flom. Mr. Thompson is a graduate of Columbia College, Columbia Law School and holds an M.P.A. from Princeton University's Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs where he is currently co-teaching a policy workshop on the Next Generation Internet. Mr. Thompson currently leads the United States delegation to the Organization of Economic Cooperating Development (OECD) Consumer Policy Committee and serves as president-elect of the International Marketing Supervision Network (IMSN), an association of international consumer protection enforcement agencies.

George Tomko is Chairman of Photonics Research Ontario, an Ontario Center of Excellence comprising researchers from Ontario universities and research institutes with the mandate to develop optical and photon based technologies. Dr. Tomko founded Mytec Technologies, Inc. in 1987 where he invented the privacy enhancing technology of Biometric Encryption. He served as President and CEO until September, 1996 and Chairman and Chief Scientific Officer until December, 1997. Prior to founding Mytec, Dr. Tomko was a co-founder of Counterforce, Inc.; Vice-President and General Manager of Chubb Security Systems; and a researcher-lecturer at the University of Toronto. He also served in the Canadian Armed Forces (Royal Canadian Navy) for ten years, attaining the rank of Captain. Dr. Tomko has a B.A.Sc. in engineering physics, a M.A.Sc. in electrical engineering, and a Ph.D. in neuroscience from the University of Toronto.

Bruce Umbaugh is Assistant Professor of Philosophy and Director of the Center for Practical and Interdisciplinary Ethics at Webster University. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Maryland, College Park and teaches epistemology, philosophy of science, and modern philosophy, as well as courses on technology and cyberspace. He has written and spoken on such topics as naturalistic treatments of human rationality, anonymity and identity online, free speech, virtual community, intellectual property, and distance education. His recent book, On Berkeley (Wadsworth 2000), reviews the arguments of the 18th-century, Irish philosopher, George Berkeley, and also discusses the relevance of Berkeley's idealism for understanding cyberspace.

Hans A. von Spakovsky is the Executive Director of the Voting Integrity Project Legislative Alliance. He serves on the Board of Advisors of the Voting Integrity Project, a national non-partisan organization concerned with protecting the integrity and security of the voting process, which released the first research paper on Internet voting: "Are We Ready for Internet Voting?" Mr. von Spakovsky is the Vice President and General Counsel of the Strollo Group, a government relations and public affairs firm. He is an attorney with 15 years of experience in private practice, as the head of a corporate legal department, and as a government affairs consultant. Mr. von Spakovsky serves on the Board of Advisors of the Georgia Public Policy Foundation, the largest state-based think tank in the country. He is a graduate of the Vanderbilt School of Law and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Raymond Wacks is Professor of Law and Legal Theory at the University of Hong In March 1997 he was awarded a Higher Doctorate in Law (LLD) by the University of London for his publications on privacy and legal theory. Professor Wacks' major works in the field of privacy are The Protection of Privacy (1980), Personal Information: Privacy and the Law, (OUP, 1989), Privacy, a two-volume collection of essays, Privacy and Press Freedom (1995). He is co-author (with Mark Berthold) of Data Privacy: A Guide to the Hong Kong Law (1997). Professor Wacks is the chairman of the sub-committee of the Law Reform Commission of Hong Kong currently examining this subject, and a member of the Personal Data (Privacy) Advisory Committee. His well-known book, Jurisprudence (now in its fifth edition), is used by students throughout the common law world.

Marc Waldman is a Ph.D. student in the Computer Science Department at New York University. His research interests include computer security and privacy-enhancing technologies. He received a BA and MS in Computer Science from New York University.

Jonathan Weinberg is a professor at Wayne State University Law School in Detroit, Michigan, where he's taught since 1988. Before coming to Wayne, he clerked for then-Judge Ruth Bader Ginsburg and Justice Thurgood Marshall, studied Japanese communications law as a visiting scholar at the University of Tokyo, and was an associate at the Washington, D.C. law firm of Shea & Gardner. He has taken leaves of absence, since coming to Wayne, in order to serve as a scholar in residence at the Federal Communications Commission, where he worked on Internet-related matters, and as a professor in residence at the Justice Department. He is currently a visiting scholar at Cardozo Law School's Howard M. Squadron Program in Law, Media and Society, and co-chair of the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers's Working Group C on new global top-level domains.

Fred Wertheimer is the Founder and President of Democracy 21, a nonpartisan public policy organization working to help renew American democracy for the 21st century. Democracy 21's agenda includes finding ways to use the communications revolution to strengthen democracy and reforming the nation's campaign finance laws. Wertheimer also currently serves as a political consultant for ABC News. Wertheimer is a long time leader of the efforts to achieve campaign finance reform and previously served as President of Common Cause for fourteen years. Wertheimer served in 1996 as a Fellow at the Shorenstein Center on the Press, Politics and Public Policy at Harvard University and in 1997 as J. Skelly Wright Fellow and Visiting Lecturer at Yale Law School.

Alma Whitten is finishing up her PhD at Carnegie Mellon University. Her work argues that security, as a usability design problem, has such fundamentally different characteristics from general end-user software that standard usability design methodology does not meet its needs. Her thesis presents a usability design methodology tailored for computer security, and applies it in the design of a new public-key based email security application. This work follows on her published case study of the usability failures of PGP 5.0.

Rebecca Wright is a principal research staff member in the Secure Systems Research Department at AT&T Labs-Research in Florham Park, NJ. Her research is in the areas of cryptography and distributed computing. She is particularly interested in design and analysis of secure cryptographic protocols, electronic commerce, and network security. Her recent work has included work on certificate revocation, secure multiparty computation, and quorum systems. Wright received a Ph.D. in Computer Science from Yale University in 1994 and a B.A. from Columbia University in 1988.

Home | Participation | Register | Program | Accommodations | Transportation | Program Committee | Sponsors | About Toronto | Credits | Privacy Policy